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+NXT-Python is a package for controlling a LEGO NXT robot using the Python
+programming language. It can communicate using either USB or Bluetooth. It is
+available under the Gnu GPL license. It is based on NXT_Python, where releases
+halted in May 2007.
+ * Python 2.6 (http://www.python.org)
+ And at least one comm library:
+ * Bluetooth communications:
+ Linux/Windows: PyBluez (http://code.google.com/p/pybluez/)
+ (package python-bluez in deb-based linuxes)
+ Mac: LightBlue (http://lightblue.sourceforge.net/)
+ * USB communications:
+ PyUSB (http://sourceforge.net/projects/pyusb/)
+Installation (if using source package):
+ * Untar/unzip source package
+ * In package directory, run "python setup.py install" (as root), or if
+ under windows, double-click install.bat.
+ * To use USB on Linux as non-superuser, at a root terminal type:
+ groupadd lego
+ usermod -a -G lego [username]
+ echo 'BUS=="usb", SYSFS{idVendor}=="0694", GROUP="lego", MODE="0660"' \
+ > /etc/udev/rules.d/70-lego.rules
+Getting Started:
+ Take a look at the examples directory. Feel free to copy that code into your
+scripts and don't be afraid to experiment! If you are having trouble with
+something, you may find the solution in the docstrings (for example,
+help('nxt.sensor.Ultrasonic')) or even in the source code (especially for
+digital sensors).
+ (I have tried to put the most important stuff first, but it would be a good
+ idea to read the whole section. In any case, read it all the way through
+ before asking for help. Thanks!)
+ -=-=-About v2-=-=-
+ This version is part of the 2.x series of releases. Programs designed for
+NXT_Python or for the 1.x series of nxt-python will not work with this version.
+If you are trying to get an old program to work, it most likely needs a 1.x
+series release, which can be downloaded from the nxt-python downloads page at
+googlecode. New projects should use a 2.x series release (hint: this is one!)
+due to the new features and API improvements. Converting old projects is
+somewhat difficult and not officially supported, though as always you're
+welcome to ask for help.
+ -=-=-Problems and Their Solutions-=-=-
+ Support for a number of sensors has not been tested at all, due to lack of
+hardware. I have started a project to test this code, but the going is slow
+and I have decided to go ahead and release rather than waiting several more
+months. If you have a problem with a digital sensor, see the troubleshooting
+guide below and don't forget to report your trouble!
+ The Synchronized Motor support has not been extensively tested for accuracy.
+It seems to mostly work well but the accuracy of the braking function and the
+closeness of the two motors to each other have not been assesed.
+ NXT-Python has not been tested and may not work with custom nxt firmware
+versions (if you don't know what that means, you don't need to worry about it).
+However, if the firmware uses the standard USB/BT communications protocol,
+everything should more or less work. NXT-Python has been tested with bricks
+using LEGO firmware version up to 1.29 and is compatible with protocol version
+1.124 (used by most if not all of the official firmwares). It has also been
+reported working with LeJOS.
+ -=-=-If you co'd the SVN...-=-=-
+ The Arduino directory of an svn checkout (not included with release
+packages) contains a digital sensor unit test system called nxtduemu. It is
+intended for developers and advanced users who are looking to experiment with
+sensors and the digital sensor framework and classes. See Arduino/README for
+more info and usage instructions.
+Specific Stability Status:
+ nxt.brick, nxt.telegram, nxt.direct, and nxt.system:
+ Hardly changed since NXT_Python; very, very stable.
+ USB Communication System (nxt.usbsock)
+ On Linux: Very stable and extensively tested.
+ On Windows: Somewhat tested; seems to work pretty well.
+ On Mac: Should be working, though I have not heard either way.
+ BlueTooth Communication System (nxt.bluesock, nxt.lightblueglue)
+ On Linux: Stable; well tested.
+ On Windows: Stable; working last I checked.
+ On Mac: Reported working.
+ nxt.locator:
+ Stable, somewhat tested. One developer reported problems.
+ nxt.motor:
+ Stable except for Synchronized Motor support, which is experimental at
+ this stage and has not been extensively tested.
+ nxt.sensor:
+ Code not specific to a particular sensor is well tested and working
+ great. More than half of the sensor classes were last reported working;
+ the rest have not to my knowlege been tested and were written blindly
+ from the manuacturers' specifications.
+ nxt.error:
+ If there's a problem with this one, I'm gonna cry.
+ NXT-Python's Head Developer:
+ Marcus Wanner (marcusw@cox.net)
+ The support and development mailing list:
+ http://groups.google.com/group/nxt-python
+ Report bugs and suggest new features at:
+ http://code.google.com/p/nxt-python/issues/list
+Thanks to:
+ Doug Lau for writing NXT_Python, our starting point.
+ rhn for creating what would become v2, making lots of smaller changes, and
+ reviewing tons of code.
+ mindsensors.com (esp. Ryan Kneip) for helping out with the code for a lot of
+ their sensors and expanding the sensors covered by the type checking
+ database.
+ HiTechnic for providing identification information for their sensors. I note
+ that they have now included this information in their website. ;)
+ Linus Atorf, Samuel Leeman-Munk, melducky, Simon Levy, Steve Castellotti,
+ Paulo Vieira, zonedabone, migpics, and anyone else I forgot for various
+ fixes and additions.
+ All our users for their interest and support!
+Troubleshooting Digital Sensors (don't read unless you have problems):
+If you are getting errors, strange behavor, or incorrect values from a digital
+sensor, chances are that there is a bug in our code. Follow these instructions
+to try and find out what's wrong:
+ 1. Test the sensor with a different access library to make sure it's working
+ 2. Check your code again. There are some weird "features" in the interfaces
+of some of the sensors; make sure you are doing things right.
+ 3. Locate the sensor class's source code in nxt-python. It should be
+somewhere in nxt/sensor/<manufacturer>.py, under the heading "class SensorName(
+BaseDigitalSensor):". Read any comments for instructions on certain things.
+If you get to here and are still having a problem, you can either go ahead and
+report it now or continue to try and find and fix the problem and then report
+it (or not report it at all, but that wouldn't be very nice...).
+Python experience required beyond this point.
+ 4. Get the sensor's specifications from the manufacturer's website. Make
+sure it includes a table of I2C registers and instructions for using them.
+ 5. Pick one of the following depending on what the problem is:
+ Cause: We screwed up.
+ Solution: Check the line mentioned in the error for incorrect syntax or
+other problem. A bit of python experience and maybe some googling is needed
+####Strange Behavior (in sensors with modes/commands):
+ Cause: nxt-python's command enumerations are incorrect.
+ Solution: Verify them using the sensor's specs, and correct any problems.
+ See "Incorrect Values" for more.
+####Incorrect Values:
+ Cause: nxt-python is processing the value wrong.
+ Solution: Check what goes on in the sampling method against what the spec
+says should be done. If there is an inconsistency, try to fix it.
+ Cause: nxt-python has an incorrect register number or type in I2C_ADDRESS.
+ Solution: Verify the address (the number) and the string (the struct format
+string). To verify the address, use the spec. To verify the struct format, you
+will need to read this: <http://docs.python.org/library/struct.html#format-
+strings> or have experience with struct.
+Read the spec for the sensor to determine how the given value should be read,
+then start at the sample method and read through it, checking for problems as
+you go. If it seems right, go back to the I2C_ADDRESS chunk (near the top of the
+class) and make sure that the correct struct format string is being used. The
+most common problem here is values that are off by plus or minus 128 or 32768
+because of an incorrect signed/unsigned setting. This can be fixed by switching
+the case (as in upper or lower) of the letter in the string. Other problems
+could include the wrong size (B, H, or L) being used, or, in the two latter
+ones, the wrong byte order (< or >). As always, common sense required.